B. settler colonies

Settler colonies were people who colonized to settle and live in the places they colonized.

Australia was originally a penal colony, which is when the euopeans sent the convicts their to work and pay off their penalties. After the penal colonies were over and Australia became independent they separated it into 6 separate colonie and left the desert empty. During this time they were governed by a governor and legislative. the legislative was elected by the people.

Algeria was held unde3r French rule from 1830 to 1962. it was the longest overseed territory. Algeria was mainly populated by Muslims. Charles the 10th colonized Algeria to increase his popularity amongst the French people. The Muslims were dissatisfied due to lack of political status fueled the independence from France.

South Africa was ruled by the British. the part taken over was the Cape of good Hope at the southern tip of Africa in 1815 and also annexed adjacent costal regional of Natal.

Urban Ethnic Enclaves/Discrimination

The Chinese Exclusion Act:

With a large influx of Chinese immigrants into the United States, the government instituted the Chinese Exclusion Act which essentially throttled the amount of Chinese Immigrants which could enter the US. For those who did enter the US, they were given poor wages for very difficult jobs. After this act was passed, anti-Chinese prejudice started up in areas such as Peru, Cuba and Mexico.

The White Australia Policy:

Following the influx of Chinese miners, which began to displace local workers, the WAP was passed through the resentment of local white miners aimed at the Chinese miners, however it was extended against indentured laborers due to their willingness to subject to poor working standards including lower wages. Later tightened several immigration policies to reduce the flow of Chinese immigrants.

School Effects:

Enclaves formed distinct cultural communities. The presence of which started to passively affect the local school systems, encouraging the teaching of other cultures and languages. The school systems were also means of cultural diffusion as children spread their ideals and beliefs.

Changes in Labor/Migration. New states in the edge of empires. 4th Period

Some of the major labor changes in this period included the Japanese samurais changing into business elites as industrialization occurred, slave labor transforming into the use of indentured servitude, British farmers changing into the base of workers for the Industrial Revolution, and industrialization as a whole created a new class and new labor forces. Migrations also occurred during this period. Some migrations during this period were the Great Scramble for Africa, Britain officially migrating into India after the disputes between the East India Company and Indians, and the United States migrating into Philippines and Japan. Some internal migrations that occurred were the migrations from rural to urban areas. Egypt, Siberia, Germany, Greece, Turkish National State, and Italy were all new states that formed in this time period.